Evolution of Windows – From DOS to Windows 10: Part 1

A lot of us are currently running Windows 10 on our PCs. Since it was released in 2015, Windows 10 has proved a good OS for not just PCs but IoT devices, tablets, and even phones despite the death of Windows 10 Mobile last month. We all should be running Windows 10 at the moment because of Windows 7’s end of life last month, or you should install Linux instead if you want a secure OS for free or your old PC is incapable of running Windows 10. However, Windows wasn’t always the metro-style OS it is now. Back in 1985, Windows 1.0 was released and it looked very different from Windows 10. It ran on top of MS-DOS, which was Microsoft’s CLI-based operating system which is known for its retro gaming support.

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Got an old Windows PC incapable of upgrading to Windows 10? Never fear, Linux is here!

If you pay attention to tech news and security notices, you’ll know Microsoft have ended support for Windows 7, Vista, and XP by now. To be honest by now, we should all be running Windows 10 after Microsoft gave us a year to prepare to move away from 7. Microsoft recommend that you buy a new PC preinstalled with it or upgrade it. But what if your PC doesn’t meet the hardware requirements? How can you stay secure without upgrading to Windows 10?

Continue reading “Got an old Windows PC incapable of upgrading to Windows 10? Never fear, Linux is here!”

Yesterday 13 years ago, Microsoft released Windows Vista

On the 30th January 2007, Microsoft released Windows Vista. This version of Windows included a major overhaul to the system UI but also was very buggy which is why Windows 7 was released two years later which was much more stable. Windows Vista was NOT a free upgrade, unlike Windows 10 which was free for Windows 7 and 8 users for a year.

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Fix audio on Raspberry Pi

If audio is not playing on your Raspberry Pi and the only output recognised in settings is ‘dummy output’ then you have a problem. However, this issue is easy to solve, all you have to do is add two lines to config.txt.

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Raspberry Pi 4 review

For Christmas I got a Raspberry Pi 4. I had to order a thermal cooling case as well as a USB-C power lead as well as a microHDMI to HDMI adapter (first one didn’t work, second one did luckily). I got the 4GB version so expect some great performance.

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Merry Christmas

Merry Christmas everyone, sorry I haven’t been active recently, I will be delivering you amazing Python and Raspberry Pi tutorials soon! I got a Raspberry Pi 4 (4GB RAM) for Christmas, but do not have a microHDMI to HDMI adapter or power lead for it so I can’t write about it at the moment. Soon, however, I will purchase those two things and set it up, hopefully on a 64-bit OS to make good use of the RAM, then I can write a review as well as a lot of tutorials to come.

Merry Christmas everybody!

-Chas 🎅

Python tutorials #1 – basic calculator

This is the first of my Python tutorials! Python is a programming language but unlike C++ and Java, is easier to learn but can still be used to create amazing programs such as web browsers, calculators, word processors, and more. But unlike Scratch, a GUI used to make games and other projects aimed at beginners and young children, you still must master Python to create amazing applications using it.

So, here’s my first tutorial: a basic calculator that can be used to add, subtract, multiply, and divide two numbers. Unlike the calculator app preloaded on your PC or phone however, it is CLI based so you won’t have a friendly GUI calculator but rather one where you type two numbers, what you want to do with them, then get the result printed to the screen.

This guide assumes that you are using the newer Python 3.x. The code may work on Python 2.x, but has not been tested, so if you need to stick to Python 2.x for some reason, you may have to make adaptations to the code for it to work properly.

Fire up your Python IDE (such as IDLE3 or Geany) and enter in the following code:


first_number = input("Enter in first number: ")
second_number = input("Enter in second number: ")
print(int(first_number) + int(second_number))

This basic block of code will ask you to enter in the first number, then store that first number, then enter the second number, store that second number, and then show the answer. The int around the variables converts them into intergers so they can be added together as numbers, not as characters. Without this 5 + 10 would equal 510, not 15.

This, however, is a little restricted. You can only add the two numbers, not subtract, multiply, or divide. Asking the user for what they want to do with the two numbers and then doing that expands the calculator’s functionality. For example:


first_number = input("Enter in first number: ")
second_number = input("Enter in second number: ")
option_choice = input("Add, subtract, multiply, or divide? ")
if 'dd' in option_choice:
print(int(first_number) + int(second_number))
elif 'ubtract' in option_choice:
print(int(first_number) - int(second_number))
elif 'ultiply' in option_choice:
print(int(first_number) * int(second_number))
elif 'ivide' in option_choice:
print(int(first_number) / int(second_number))

We are not doing if statements to see if, for example, option_choice equals ‘add’ as Python is case sensitive in this area. Checking for ‘dd’ (end of ‘add’) ensures that the program will work regardless of whether A is capital or not.

So there you have it! A basic calculator made in Python. Currently lacks support for decimals however, so if you try entering decimals the program will error out. This guide is aimed at beginners, so this calculator will likely be expanded on in a future guide. Enjoy!

-Chas 😎